What is Acute Care Service System?

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We can say acute care service system is a part of secondary health care where a patient receives active but short-term treatment for a serious injury or phase of illness, an urgent medical condition, or during recovery from surgery. In the medical terms, we can say care for acute health conditions is the opposite from chronic care.

Acute care service system are generally delivered by teams of health care professionals from a range of medical and surgical specialties’. Acute care may require a stay in a medical emergency department, surgery center, urgent care center or other short-term stay facility, along with the assistance of diagnostic services, surgery, or  follow-up outpatient care in the community.

In hospital-based acute impatient care typically has the goal of discharging patients as soon as they are consider healthy and stable. In acute care settings include emergency department, coronary care, cardiology, intensive care,  and many general parts  where the patient could become acutely unwell and require stabilization and transfer to another higher  unit for better  treatment.

Defining acute care service system

The clear definition of health systems and services are required to create a common language to encourage discussion and help to focus system development efforts. Health systems include all organizations, institutions and resources “whose first purpose is to promote, restore and/or maintain health”.

Health services are “aimed at contributing to improved health or to the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of ailing people”. So that  they can be viewed from several perspectives: (a) as actions to organize the inputs necessary for the provision of effective involvement; (b) as inclusive of promotion, precaution, cure and rehabilitation (c) as aligned towards either individuals or populations.

Acute care service system can also be clearly defined; Standard medical definitions for acuity emphasize the singular attribute of time pressure. Acute care service system therefore include all promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative or calming actions, whether positioned towards individuals or populations, whose first purpose is to improve health and whose effectiveness largely depends on time-sensitive and, frequently, rapid involvement.

So, many individually-aligned services have optimal delivery times. As a group, acute curative system services are the most time-sensitive, nevertheless of disease entity. However, to date, acute care system has been poorly defined and unsatisfactorily supported in most developing health systems. A reasonable working meaning of acute care would include the most time-sensitive, individually-oriented diagnostic and curative actions whose first purpose is to improve health.

A proposed definition of acute care service system includes the health system aliments, or care delivery platforms, used to treat unexpected, urgent or arising incident of injury and illness that can lead to death or disability without rapid involvement. The term acute care system surrounded a range of clinical health-care functions, including emergency medicine, trauma care, pre-hospital emergency care, acute care surgery system, critical care, urgent care inpatient stabilization.

The contribution of acute care service system

As a clinical service, acute care service system responds to immediately life- or limb-threatening health conditions, regardless of their ultimate reason. Thus, acute care system necessarily supports progress towards strong health systems rather than from medley efforts that may improve outcomes for specific conditions but not the overall functioning of the health system. Notably, many of the material, consumable and human resources required to implement acute care platforms are the same as those needed in traditional “disease-centered” programmers’.

Additionally, it is important to banish common misperceptions about acute care system, such as believing it to be the same as ambulance transport or fundamentally reliant on high technology. On the contrary, excellent acute care is driven by a profane element – i.e. responding to immediate threats to life or limb – and involves a redistribution of resources to minimize nearing death and disability. The integration of acute care system with preventive and primary care completes a health-care system prototype that fully encompasses all essential aspects of health care system delivery.

The principal conceptual framework divides health problems into communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries. The current global discussion concerning non-communicable diseases illustrates how care can be fragmented when the time sensitivity of curative interventions is ignored. Out of the 57 million deaths in the world in 2008, 36 million were caused by non-communicable diseases. 

A substantial and increasing proportion of the global deaths from non-communicable diseases and injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries undergoing the epidemiologic transition. Strategies for addressing morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases have focused almost exclusively on prevention and primary care. For instance, the recently issued Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: guidelines for primary health care in low-resource settings offer guidelines for the management of diabetes. 

However, only the three final points refer to time-sensitive measures, even though a condition such as diabetic can be acutely life-threatening. The major essential contribution of acute care towards reducing the growing burden of disease and injuries has been woefully underestimated.

Acute care service system plays a vital role in the prevention of death and disability. Primary care is not positioned, and is frequently unable to assume this role. Within health systems, acute care also serves as an entry point to health care for individuals with emergent and urgent conditions.

A strict definition of acute care will allow the development of metrics for the evaluation of acute care services, the assessment of the disease burden addressed by these services, and the utterance of goals for the advancement of acute care in low- and middle-income countries. 

The separate and currently fragmented specialty areas grouped under acute care service system have been largely unable to spark growth in their respective clinical domains at the international level. This is partly because lack of pertinent metrics and coordination of health service delivery. Understanding acute care as an integrated care platform allows these splintered areas to move forward with a single agenda as a fused front.

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